Cytotoxic T Cell

Cytotoxic T cells A cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ T cell) is a type of lymphocyte responsible for eliminating substances that the immune system identifies as harmful. Cytotoxic T cells play a critical role in limiting infections and bacteria in the body. Functions of cytotoxic T cells Viruses and other bacteria attack by multiplying and spreading disease as infected cells. Once a cell is infected, there is no way for antibodies to destroy the infection; this is where […]


What is immunology? Immunology is the study of the immune system and is a very important branch of medical and biological sciences. The immune system protects us from infection through several lines of defence. If the immune system is not working as it should, it can lead to diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy, and cancer. It is also now becoming clear that immune responses contribute to the development of many common disorders not traditionally thought of as […]

Signal Amplification

Summary Signal amplification methods were initially designed as an alternative to target amplification technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to minimize the possibility of contamination by target amplification products. Unlike target amplification, signal amplification methods (as defined herein) do not rely on enzymes for amplification. Probe-based amplification techniques, such as cleavage-based amplification and rolling circle amplification, are enzyme-based and will not be covered in this chapter. Signal amplification enhances or amplifies the signal generated from the […]